When I was a freshman in high school, I had a number of disagreements with my parents and teachers about the types of long-haired boys I idolized. For a final poetry analysis assignment, I chose to compare and contrast the poetry of Cream’s “Strange Brew” to Type O Negative’s “Black No. 1,” complete with footnotes about the Nosferatu references. My teacher reduced my grade and wrote at the top, “Good job although your choice of poetry is rather ‘dark.’” I was outraged at the censorship and the battle was on. The war ended with me getting a “D” for my final semester freshman year in English class.

The academic year was over, so my parents couldn’t punish me with an incentive system for increasing the grade. Instead, they devised a more constructive teenage rehabilitation program: 10 book reports over the course of the summer. They told me to drop the setting/characters/plot summary format from grade school and just write a couple of paragraphs analyzing the book or convincing them why they should read it. My mom showed me literary magazines and professional library journals so that I could see how librarians and academics were introduced to books.

I survived the most evil punishment in the world…

“Can I have a ride to Heidi’s house?”

“Sure, write a book report.”

…and turned it into job as a freelance writer and reviewer.

In February of 2008, Bill Warford of the Antelope Valley Press interviewed me about my career as one of the Top 500 book reviewers on Amazon.com. In the article, he cited my parents’ “creative punishment” for creating this book-reviewing monster. I’ve been having fun sharing my thoughts on books ever since the summer of 1995. Thank you, Mom and Dad.

Oh, and guess what? One of the students I mentor just finished her freshman year and her parents asked me for ways to keep her mind fresh over the summer…

## Thursday, May 27, 2010

## Tuesday, April 6, 2010

## Wednesday, March 17, 2010

### Alice's Adventures in Symbolic Algebra

British mathematician Charles Dodgson published nonsense fiction under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll. The fantastically absurd adventures of Alice in Wonderland are filled with Dodgson’s rants against the radical new math ideas appearing in Victorian universities.

Dodgson was a conservative, cautious mathematician who tutored at Oxford to earn extra income. He faithfully followed the principles laid out by Greek mathematician Euclid in the textbook

You studied symbolic algebra in high school, but it was an emerging concept in Victorian times. Under the rules of arithmetic, if I have one apple and you give me two more, then I have 1 + 2 = 3 apples. With the power of algebra, we can think of apples as variables. So, x is number of apples I have, and you give me two more every day, so on any given day, I have x + 2*y apples, where y is the number of days that have passed. Variables are very useful but they are abstract. As abstract, say, as the Cheshire Cat disappearing gradually until nothing is left but his grin. Alice remarks that she has often seen a cat without a grin but never a grin without a cat, which is a commentary on this new abstraction in math.

The concept of imaginary numbers was once a radical idea. We all know that 2 * 2 = 4 and -2 * -2 = 4. So the square root of 4 is √4 = ±2. But what if we want to take the square root of a negative number? The square root of -4 doesn’t exist. So, we invent the imaginary number

Alice in Wonderland is Charles Dodgson’s satire of what he perceived to be semi-logic among his mathematical contemporaries. His fiction takes the new abstract math concepts to their logical conclusions using Euclid's rules for mathematical proofs, with sometimes mad results. In the chapter Pig and Pepper, Dodgson uses French mathematician Jean-Victor Poncelet’s continuity principle to turn a baby into a pig, demonstrating the absurdity of modern projective geometry. Dodgson’s lesson to Alice? Follow the rules of Euclid’s geometry to survive in Wonderland. Keep your ratios constant, even if your size changes after eating mushrooms with the Caterpillar.

Learn more:

The NPR story which first introduced me to Lewis Carroll as Charles Dodgson, mathematician

Melanie Bayley's PhD dissertation on Alice's Adventures in Algebra

Dodgson was a conservative, cautious mathematician who tutored at Oxford to earn extra income. He faithfully followed the principles laid out by Greek mathematician Euclid in the textbook

*Elements*. You probably remember Euclid’s rigorous reasoning from your high school geometry class: start with accepted truths (axioms), use logical steps to build increasingly complex arguments, and sign off the mathematical proof with the Latin acronym Q.E.D. (for quod erat demonstrandum, or “that which was to be demonstrated").You studied symbolic algebra in high school, but it was an emerging concept in Victorian times. Under the rules of arithmetic, if I have one apple and you give me two more, then I have 1 + 2 = 3 apples. With the power of algebra, we can think of apples as variables. So, x is number of apples I have, and you give me two more every day, so on any given day, I have x + 2*y apples, where y is the number of days that have passed. Variables are very useful but they are abstract. As abstract, say, as the Cheshire Cat disappearing gradually until nothing is left but his grin. Alice remarks that she has often seen a cat without a grin but never a grin without a cat, which is a commentary on this new abstraction in math.

The concept of imaginary numbers was once a radical idea. We all know that 2 * 2 = 4 and -2 * -2 = 4. So the square root of 4 is √4 = ±2. But what if we want to take the square root of a negative number? The square root of -4 doesn’t exist. So, we invent the imaginary number

*i*, define it as*i*² = -1 and now we can solve the problem that had no answer. √-4 = √-1 * √4 = 2*i*. Just use the imaginary number*i*and now it works! You will have to accept the concept of*i*to pass American high school math standards, but Charles Dodgson was a traditionalist who wrote Alice in Wonderland to satirize absurd concepts like these.Irish mathematician Sir William Rowan Hamilton took this imaginary number nonsense to an entirely new level by inventing quaternions.The complex number 2*i*has a real part (the number 2) and an imaginary part (*i*).Quaternions extended complex numbers into four parts instead of two. The algebraic properties like x + y = y + x do not apply to quaternions. Dodgson was understandably frustrated with new math that violated the commutative property!Enter the Mad Hatter and his tea party. Alice is at a dinner party with three strange characters who have kicked the fourth character (Time) out of the room. Mathematician Hamilton could only describe rotations in a single plane (the movement of the characters around the dinner table) until he introduced the fourth variable of Time to his quaternion logic. When the Hatter tells Alice that “I see what I eat” is not the same thing as “I eat what I see,” he is telling her that the commutative property does not apply here. In this world, x times y is not the same as y times x! When the scene ends, two of the characters are trying to stuff the third into a teapot, so they can get out of this endless rotation and go back to being a complex number with just two parts.Alice in Wonderland is Charles Dodgson’s satire of what he perceived to be semi-logic among his mathematical contemporaries. His fiction takes the new abstract math concepts to their logical conclusions using Euclid's rules for mathematical proofs, with sometimes mad results. In the chapter Pig and Pepper, Dodgson uses French mathematician Jean-Victor Poncelet’s continuity principle to turn a baby into a pig, demonstrating the absurdity of modern projective geometry. Dodgson’s lesson to Alice? Follow the rules of Euclid’s geometry to survive in Wonderland. Keep your ratios constant, even if your size changes after eating mushrooms with the Caterpillar.

Learn more:

The NPR story which first introduced me to Lewis Carroll as Charles Dodgson, mathematician

Melanie Bayley's PhD dissertation on Alice's Adventures in Algebra

## Sunday, March 14, 2010

### Pi: Irrational but well-rounded

Happy Pi Day! What a good day to found my blog about private tutoring. I'll be back soon to write more about the hidden math arguments in Alice in Wonderland.

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